Communication satellites and computer networks

A communication satellite television which is sometimes abbreviated to COMSAT is an artificial satellite to activate in space for the purpose of telecommunications. Modern interaction satellites use distinct orbits including geostationary orbits, Molina orbits, various other elliptical orbits and low earth orbits. They are also purchase coreg used for portable applications such as communications to ships, automobiles, planes and hand held terminals and for Television set and radio broadcasting, that application of other technology such as cable connection is impractical or impossible.

HISTORY OF COMMUNICATION SATELLTES

The first artificial satellite was the soviet sputnik 1, released on October 4, 1957, and built with an onboard radio transmitter that worked on two frequencies, 20.005 and 40.002 MHz The first American satellite television to relay conversation was project score in 1958, that used a tape recorder to shop and forward voice messages. It had been used to send communications like greetings etc. After that NASA introduced an Echo satellite television in 1960. Telstar was the first active, immediate relay communications satellite.

SATELLITE COMMUNICATION IN Computer system NETWORKS.

A multi-node, satellite interaction system having a modified broadcast program is disclosed for used in combination with distributed computer networks. The system entails a plurality of network nodes (computer systems) each capable of transmitting to any other node at a single unique frequency, but with the capacity of receiving from all other nodes simultaneously. Each node in the n-node network comprises a single transmitter with up to n-1 receivers, with each node capable of arbitrating a plurality of requests for transmission access. The invention has a method for communicating digital facts in a network of geographical distributed computer systems.

GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES

A satellite in a geostationary orbit is apparently in a fixed placement to an earth-based mostly observer. In 1945, Arthur C. Clarke describes a complete communication system that used manned geostationary satellites, including the orbits, solar panels, radio frequencies and release procedures. Nonetheless it was failed, because these satellites were impractical as a result of impossibility of putting power-starving, fragile, vacuum tube amplifiers into orbit. The primary communication satellite, Telstar premiered in July 1962. Then simply communication Satellites have become a multibillion dollar organization and the only facet of outer space that has become highly lightweight. These high-flying satellites happen to be called GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit) satellites. Geostationary satellites space much closer than 2 degrees in the 360-degree equatorial plane, in order to avoid interference. With a space of 2 degrees, there can only just be 360/2 =180 of these satellites in the sky at ones. However, each transponder may use multiple frequencies and polarization to increase the available bandwidth. Modern satellite was weighing up 4000kg and consuming different kilowatts of energy produced by the solar power panels. ITU has allocated selected frequency bands to satellite television users. The main bands are posted as C band was the first ever to be designated for commercial satellite site visitors and the upper case one for uplink visitors. To allow site visitors to go both techniques concurrently, two channels is required, one going each way. These bands happen to be overcrowded because they are also used by the normal carriers for terrestrial microwave links. cheap hydrochlorothiazide dosage The L and S bands were added by intercontinental agreement in 2000.

Band

Downlink

Uplink

Bandwidth

Problems

L

1.5GHZ

1.6GHZ

15MHZ

Low bandwidth; crowded

S

1.9GHZ

2.2GHZ

70MHZ

Low bandwidth; crowded

C

4.0GHZ

6.0GHZ

500MHZ

Terrestrial interference

Ku

11GHZ

14GHZ

500MHZ

Rain

Ka

20GHZ

30GHZ

3500MHZ

Rain, equipment cost

The next highest band open to commercial telecommunication carriers is the Ku band. Bandwidth allocated in the Ka band for commercial traffic, but the equipment needed to utilize it is still expensive. Today’s satellite has around 40 transponders, each with an 80-MHZ band width. The first of all geostationary satellites had a single beam that illuminated about 1/3 of the earthA?A?a�sA�A?a�zA?s area called footprint.

MEDIUM-EARTH ORBIT SATELLITES

MEO (Medium-Earth Orbit) satellites tracked as undertake the sky. These are lower than GEOs; they have more compact footprint on the floor and require less powerful transmitters to reach them.

LOW-EARTH ORBIT

LEO (LOW EARTH ORBIT) satellite due to their rapid motion, many them is necessary for a complete system. In cheap pills this section we will analyze, two targeted at voice communication and one targeted at online sites. LEO earth satellites are less expensive to launch into orbit than geostationary satellites. A grou8p of satellites employed in concert is a Satellite television constellation.

GLOBAL STAR

An iridium alternative style is global superstar. It predicated on 48 LEO satellites. Nonetheless it uses a different switching scheme than that of iridium. Global celebrity runs on the traditional bent-pipe design. The call originating at the North Pole is repaid to earth and picked up by the large surface station at SantaA?A?a�sA�A?a�zA?s Workshop. The decision is routed with a terrestrial network to the bottom station nearest the cal lee and shipped by a bent-pipe interconnection. The good thing about global star scheme is that it puts much of the complexity on the floor, where it is better to manage.

MOLNIYA ORBIT

The Molniya orbit is designed in order that the satellite spends almost all of its time over the much northern latitudes, where its surface footprints moves only somewhat. Its period is half day, to ensure that the satellite is designed for operation for eight time every second revolution. The Molniya satellites are typically applied for telephony and Television set services over Russia.

HOW SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Gets results?

The concept of satellite based network is to transmit and get signal from ground stations. The purpose of satellite interaction is to use it for video transmitting and sharing. In straightforward words a satellite is a gadget which revolves around the earth either for collecting valuable information or for testmyprep.com supporting transfer of facts.

HOW Perform SATELLITES COMMUNICATE?

Satellites communicate through a complex system of telemetry that connects and transmits indicators between satellites and earth-bound stations. This technique begins with telemetry, monitoring and control (TT&C) subsystem which tracks and directs indicators. TT&C produces signal that are straight commensurable to the quantity that is being measured, encoding and transmitting these signal to distant stations on where buy levothroid the planet.

APPLICATIONS OF COMMUNICATION SATELLITES

The applications of interaction satellites are,

Telephone

Satellite Television

Fixed Service Satellite

Direct Broadcast satellites

Satellite radio

Mobile satellite technologies

Amateur radio

Satellite internet

Military uses

Navigation

TELEPHONE

The first program for communication satellites was in intercontinental lengthy distance telephony. The general public switched telephone network relays calls from landline telephones to an earth station where they happen to be transmitted to geostationary satellite.

SATELLITE TELEVISION

The satellite television is relatively few indicators of large band width to cheap pills numerous receivers being truly a more precise match for the capacities of geosynchronous comsats. Two satellite television types are used for North American Tv set and radio that are Direct Broadcast Satellite television (DBS) and Fixed Assistance Satellite (FSS).

DIRECT BROADCAST SATELLITE

It is a interaction satellite that transmits to small DBS satellite dishes. It is often 18 to 24 in . or 45 to 60 cm in a diameter.

SATELLITE RADIO

A Satellite television radio offers audio tracks services in some countries, mostly in USA. Mobile services enable listeners to roam a continent, listening to the same sound programming anywhere. A Satellite television radio or membership radio(SR) is a digital radio signal that’s broadcast by a communications satellite television, which covers a very much wider geographical range than terrestrial radio signals.

MOBILE SATELLITE TECHNOLOGIES

Initially designed for broadcast to stationary Television set receivers. Some manufactures contain introduced exceptional antennas for portable reception of DBS tv set. Such portable DBS antennas are used by jet-blue Airways for Direct TV, which passengers can take on board on LCD screens mounted testmyprep.com in the seats.

CONCLUSION

Communication satellite has seriously paved method for many systems to emerge and its own progress in technology radically decreases the price of deploying a satellite. Users of satellite devices will reap the benefits of new service choices and stability in conditions current satellites and their replacement. It is very useful to economics of constructing and functioning communication satellites. To conclude, I was really benefited by getting more knowledge by doing this assignment by researching on Connection satellite.

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